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Updates found with 'biomedical signals'

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Updates found with 'biomedical signals'

VLSI PROJECTS ABSTRACT 2016 -2017LOW-POWER SYSTEMS FOR DETECTION OF SYMPTOMATIC PATTERNS IN AUDIO BIOLOGICAL SIGNALSABSTRACT: In this paper, we present a low-power, efficacious, and scalable system for the detection of symptomatic patterns in biological audio signals. The digital audio recordings of various symptoms, such as cough, sneeze, and so on, are spectrally analyzed using a discrete wavelet transform. Subsequently, we use simple mathematical metrics, such as energy, quasi-average, and coastline parameter for various wavelet coefficients of interest depending on the type of pattern to be detected. Furthermore, a mel-frequency cepstrum-based analysis is applied to distinguish between signals, such as cough and sneeze, which have a similar frequency response and, hence, occur in common wavelet coefficients. Algorithm-circuit codesign methodology is utilized in order to optimize the system at algorithm and circuit levels of design abstraction. This helps in implementing a low-power system as well as maintaining the efficacy of detection. The system is scalable in terms of user specificity as well as the type of signal to be analyzed for an audio symptomatic pattern. We utilize multiplierless implementation circuit strategies and the algorithmic modification of mel cepstrum computation to implement low power system in the 65-nm bulk Si technology. It is observed that the pattern detection system achieves about 90% correct classification of five types of audio health symptoms. We also scale the supply voltage due to lower frequency of operation and report a total power consumption of ~184 µW at 700 mV supply.
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VLSI PROJECTS ABSTRACT: 2016-2017 A LOW-POWER ROBUST EASILY CASCADED PENTAMTJ-BASED COMBINATIONAL AND SEQUENTIAL CIRCUITS ABSTRACT: Advanced computing systems embed spintronic devices to improve the leakage performance of conventional CMOS systems. High speed, low power, and infinite endurance are important properties of magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ), a spintronic device, which assures its use in memories and logic circuits. This paper presents a PentaMTJ-based logic gate, which provides easy cascading, self-referencing, less voltage headroom problem in precharge sense amplifier and low area overhead contrary to existing MTJ-based gates. PentaMTJ is used here because it provides guaranteed disturbance free reading and increased tolerance to process variations along with compatibility with CMOS process. The logic gate is validated by simulation at the 45-nm technology node using a Verilog A model of the PentaMTJ. The proposed architecture of this paper area and power consumption analysis using HSpice.Existing System: SPINTRONICS has been under extensive research because of nonvolatility, infinite endurance, and low power. The spin is employed for storing information and the charge for its processing. It has the potential to replace CMOS logic and memory. In deep submicrometer, scaling of CMOS causes the leakage power to dominate over all other power components. Digital signals are represented in conventional CMOS logic by the presence or absence of electrical charge in terms of voltage VDD or ground. However, in Spintronics, digital signals are represented by up and down spin of electron. In recent years, researchers have developed spintronic devices, such as magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs), which operates on the principle of tunnel magneto resistance (TMR). An MTJ is composed of two ferromagnetic layers separated by an oxide layer with the capability to improve the performance of CMOS logic circuit in terms of power dissipation, area required, and interconnection delay. It can also be easily fabricated using 3-D backend integration process, which is compatible with CMOS process, without any area overhead. PROPOSED SYSTEM: Fig. 1 shows the structure of the PentaMTJ which comprises of two pinned layers: 1) top pinned layer (TPL) and 2) bottom pinned layer (BPL). The magnetization of two pinned layers is in opposite direction and is fixed. In this paper, 1 state is assigned when TPL (pinned 1) is parallel to the free layer and 0 states when BPL (pinned 2) is parallel to the free layer. The proposed structure of PentaMTJ needs less current for writing as compared with the conventional MTJ. It requires current only for converting anti-parallel to parallel state for one stack, the other stack automatically comes into anti-parallel state. Moreover, PentaMTJ provides guaranteed disturbance free reading and increases the tolerance to process variation as per the only reference available in the literature on PentaMTJ. ADVANTAGES• no extra hardware is needed for complementary outputs• no need to initialize the state of the output MTJ for sensingSOFTWARE IMPLEMENTATION• Hspice
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VLSI PROJECTS ABSTRACT 2016-2017 A NORMAL I/O ORDER RADIX-2 FFT ARCHITECTURE TO PROCESS TWIN DATA STREAMS FOR MIMO ABSTRACT: Nowadays, many applications require simultaneous computation of multiple independent fast Fourier transform (FFT) operations with their outputs in natural order. Therefore, this brief presents a novel pipelined FFT processor for the FFT computation of two independent data streams. The proposed architecture is based on the multipath delay commutator FFT architecture. It has an N/2-point decimation in time FFT and an N/2-point decimation in frequency FFT to process the odd and even samples of two data streams separately. The main feature of the architecture is that the bit reversal operation is performed by the architecture itself, so the outputs are generated in normal order without any dedicated bit reversal circuit. The bit reversal operation is performed by the shift registers in the FFT architecture by interleaving the data. Therefore, the proposed architecture requires a lower number of registers and has high throughput. The proposed architecture of this paper analysis the logic size, area and power consumption using Xilinx 14.2. EXISTING SYSTEM: There are FFT architectures, which can handle multiple independent data streams. However, all the data streams are processed by a single FFT processor. In four independent data streams are processed one by one. Similarly, eight data streams are processed at two domains. Thus, the outputs of multiple data streams are not available in parallel. In order to simultaneously process the data streams, more than one FFT processors need to be employed. In one to four data streams are processed using multiple data paths for wireless local area network application. Data of different data streams are interleaved to process them simultaneously. In low complexity FFT architectures are proposed but these architectures can process only real-valued signals (signals only with real part). Moreover, they generate two outputs per clock cycle and these outputs are not in natural order. Thus, most of the recent architectures require bit reversal structures to generate the outputs in natural order. PROPOSED SYSTEM: The idea of computing an N-point FFT using two N/2-point FFT operations with additional one stage of butterfly operations is shown in Fig. 1, which is not the exact architecture but provides the methodology. The reordering blocks in Fig. 1 are merely present to state that the N/2 odd samples (x(2n + 1)) are reordered before the N/2-point DIT FFT operation and N/2 even samples (x(2n)) are reordered after the N/2-point DIF FFT operation. In order to compute the N-point DIT FFT from the outputs of two N/2-point FFTs, additional one stage of butterfly operations are performed on the results of the two FFTs. Thus, the outputs generated by additional butterfly stage are in natural order.ADVANTAGES:• throughput high• high performance• reduce the usage of hardware elementDISADVANTAGES:• Performance is low• usage of hardware element is highSOFTWARE IMPLEMENTATION• Modelsim• Xilinx ISE
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VLSI PROJECTS ABSTRACT 2016-2017: DESIGN AND FPGA IMPLEMENTATION OF A RECONFIGURABLE 1024-CHANNEL CHANNELIZATION ARCHITECTURE FOR SDR APPLICATION ABSTRACT: In this paper, we present a novel channelization architecture, which can simultaneously process two channels of complex input data and provide up to 1024 independent channels of complex output data. The proposed architecture is highly modular and generic, so that parameters of each output channel can be dynamically changed even at runtime in terms of the bandwidth, center frequency, output sampling rate, and so on. It consists of one tunable pipelined frequency transform (TPFT)-based coarse channelization block, one tuning unit, and one resampling filter. Based on the analysis of the data dependence between the subbands, a novel channel splitting scheme is proposed to enable multiple subbands to share the proposed TPFT block. The multiplier block (MB) and sub expression sharing techniques are used to reduce the number of arithmetic units of the TPFT block. Moreover, the proposed Farrow-based resampling filter does not require division operation and dual-port RAMs resulting in significant area saving. Finally, we implement the proposed channelization architecture in a single field-programmable gate array. The experiment results indicate that our design provides the flexibility associated with the existing works, but with greater resource efficiency. The proposed architecture of this paper analysis the logic size, area and power consumption using Xilinx 14.2.EXISTING SYSTEM: DDC is generally composed of a numerical control oscillator (NCO) and a sampling rate conversion (SRC) filter. It is mainly used for single-channel channelization, but it is unsuited to multichannel channelization because of its low resource utilization. FFT-based channelization has a simple structure and high resource utilization, but its filtering performance is poor, which can be improved using the windowing function method. A polyphase DFT filter bank has high resource utilization and better filtering performance, but it only realizes a uniform channel division. A Goertzel filter bank can provide a solution to a fixed center frequency problem associated with a polyphase DFT filter bank, but it cannot extract channels with non-uniform bandwidths. According to the tree-structured filter bank approach, RFEL Ltd. has developed two methods for digital channelization, called pipelined frequency transform (PFT) and tunable PFT (TPFT). The problem of power-of-two channel stacking associated with PFT can be solved by the TPFT technique. TPFT can accurately locate the radio signals, thereby ensuring the correct reception. It consists of a coarse channelization in the PFT stage and a fine channelization using a combination of complex DDC and digital up-conversion. However, its implementation complexity is much more than that of PFT. PROPOSED SYSTEM: In the current design, the maximum output sampling rate and the antialiasing output bandwidth of each channel are limited to Fs/8 and Fs/20 (=12.8 MHz for Fs = 256 MS/s), where Fs is the input sampling rate, and the spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) is required to exceed 70 dB.We use an example to illustrate the channelization process of the proposed architecture . We plan to extract three narrow-band signals A, B, and C from the input signal.ADVANTAGES:• Improve the performance• Area is reducedSOFTWARE IMPLEMENTATION:• Modelsim• Xilinx ISE
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IEEE 2016 -2017 Embedded System Projects TitlesS.No Project Title Code1. Coexistence of ZigBee-Based WBAN and Wi-Fi for Health Telemonitoring Systems Wireless2. A Novel Wireless Multifunctional Electronic Current Transformer based on ZigBee-based Communication Wireless3. Configurable ZigBee-based control system for people with multiple disabilities in smart homes Wireless4. ZigBee network system for observing operating activities of work vehicles Wireless5. Interference-Mitigated ZigBee-Based Advanced Metering Infrastructure Wireless6. A Mobile ZigBee Module in a Traffic Control System ` Wireless7. Energy Efficient Outdoor Light Monitoring and Control Architecture Using Embedded System Wireless8. Low-power wearable ECG monitoring system for multiple-patient remote monitoring Wireless9. Energy-Efficient Intelligent Street Lighting System Using Traffic-Adaptive Control Wireless10. Development of a distributed disaster data and human life sign probe system Wireless11. Design and implementation of a home automation system for smart grid applications Wireless12. Milk products monitoring system with arm processor for early detection of microbial activity ARM13. Micro grid demonstration gateway for players communication and load monitoring and management Wireless14. WiFACT -- Wireless Fingerprinting Automated Continuous Training Wireless15. Lightweight Mashup Middleware for Coal Mine Safety Monitoring and Control Automation Wireless16. A smart wearable system for sudden infant death syndrome monitoring General17. Exoskeleton robots for upper-limb rehabilitation Robotics18. Wearable Camera- and Accelerometer-Based Fall Detection on Portable Devices GSM & GPS19. Innovation in Underwater Robots: Biologically Inspired Swimming Snake Robots Robotics20. GPS based autonomous vehicle navigation and control system GSM & GPS21. Real-Time Driving Monitor System: Combined Cloud Database with GPS IoT22. AgriSys: A smart and ubiquitous controlled-environment agriculture system IoT23. Building Smart Cities Applications using IoT andCloud-based Architectures IoT24. An IoT-based system for collision detection on guardrails IoT25. A vision-based teleoperation method for a robotic arm with 4 degrees of freedom Robotics26. Gesture control of drone using a motion controller Robotics27. Development of the Mobile Robot with a Robot Arm Robotics28. Milk products monitoring system with arm processor for early detection of microbial activity ARM29. Controller Area Network Assisted Grid Synchronization of a Microgrid With Renewable Energy Sources and Storage Electrical30. A Real-Time Embedded System for Monitoring of Cargo Vehicles, Using Controller Area Network (CAN) CAN31. Wireless biosensing network for drivers' health monitoring Biomedical32. Android4Auto: A proposal for integration of Android in vehicle infotainment systems Android33. A pulse measurement and data management system based on Arduino platform and Android device Android34. Remote control and instrumentation of Android devices Android35. “AUTOBOOK” The Messaging Machines (Using GSM and Arduino) Arduino36. Tracking and Theft Prevention System for Two Wheeler Using GSM and GPS GSM & GPS37. Bank Locker Security System Using RFID and GSM Technology GSM38. Design of Entrapment Escalation using GSM for Elevators GSM39. Distribution Line Fault Detection & GSM Module Based Fault Signaling System Electrical40. GSM & PIR Based Advanced Antitheft Security System Security 41. LPG Gas Weight and Leakage Detection System Using GSM GSM42. Android Based Women Tracking System Using GPS and GSM GSM & GPS43. Trespass Prevention System Using IOT IoT44. Automatic Vehicle Accident Detection and Rescue System GSM & GPS45. Design and Implementation of Integrated Mobile Operated Remote Vehicle IoT46. A Wearable Device for Continuous Detection and Screening of Epilepsy during Daily Life IoT47. Review of Automatic Detection and control of Disease for Grape Field Gen48. Environmental Condition Monitoring System for the Industries Gen49. Security Management Access Control System Gen50. Design and Development of Embedded based System for Monitoring Industrial and Environmental Parameters for Analyzing the Health of Human beings Gen51. Visual Surveillance Using Absolute Difference Motion Detection System Raspberry pi52. Automatic Irrigation System Using Internet of Things IoT53. Design of Embedded Irrigation System by Using WSN Wireless54. Vehicle Accident Prevention Using Assistant Braking System Gen55. Smart Transport Database Management System Gen56. Accident Alert Using ZIGBEE and GPS Wireless57. Controlling the Home Appliances Remotely Through Web Application Using ZIGBEE Wireless58. An optimized solar traffic control and alert system using wireless sensor networks Wireless59. Biometric Recognition Technique for ATM System Security60. Light Weight Access Control System for Constrained IOT Devices IoT61. Design of Prototype Model for Home Automation Using Wireless Sensor Networks Wireless62. Automated Sensor Network For Monitoring and Detection of Impurity In Drinking Water System General63. Automated Smart Trolley with Smart Billing Using Arduino Gene64. Embedded Automatic Vehicle Control System Using Voice Recognition On ARM 7 Processor ARM65. Embedded Voice Controlled Computer For Visually Impaired and Physically Disabled People Using Arm Processor ARM66. Implementation of Embedded Web Server Using TCP/IP Protocol with Raspberry PI Raspberry PI67. Designing of Cleaning Robot Robot68. An Analysis of Network-Based Control System Using Controller Area Network (CAN) Protocol CAN69. Identify the Deterioration in Pipe by Using Wheel Operated Robot Robot70. RFID -G Based Navigation System For Visually Impaired To Work at Industry Gen71. New Generation ATM Terminal Services NFC72. A Wireless Sensor Interface for the Quantification of Tremor Using Off the Shelf Components Wireless73. Design and Implementation of Low-Cost SMS Based Monitoring System of Distribution Transformers GSM74. An Integrated Cloud-Based Smart Home Management System with Community Hierarchy Automation75. Home Outlet and LED Array Lamp Controlled by a Smartphone with a Hand Gesture Recognition Gesture76. Low-power wearable ECG monitoring system for multiple-patient remote monitoring Bio-medical77. Smart Real-Time Healthcare Monitoring and Tracking System using GSM/GPS Technologies Bio-medical78. The Design of Building Fire Monitoring System Based on ZigBee-WiFi Networks Wireless
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VLSI PROJECTS ABSTRACT 2016-2017 A FULLY DIGITAL FRONT-END ARCHITECTURE FOR ECG ACQUISITION SYSTEM WITH 0.5 V SUPPLY ABSTRACT: This paper presents a new power-efficient electrocardiogram acquisition system that uses a fully digital architecture to reduce the power consumption and chip area. The proposed architecture is compatible with digital CMOS technology and is capable of operating with a low supply voltage of 0.5 V. In this architecture, no analog block, e.g., low-noise amplifier (LNA), and filters, and no passive elements, such as ac coupling capacitors, are used. A moving average voltage-to time converter is used, which behaves instead of the LNA and anti-aliasing filter. A digital feedback loop is employed to cancel the impact of the dc offset on the circuit, which eliminates the need for coupling capacitors. The proposed architecture of this paper analysis the logic size, area and power consumption using Xilinx 14.2. EXISTING SYSTEM A digital signal processor then processes the digital data for monitoring or diagnosis applications. Biomedical signal acquisition systems typically consist of a low-noise amplifier (LNA), a bandpass filter, an analog sample-and-hold, and an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), as shown in Fig. 1(a). While the architecture shown in Fig. 1(a) is typically used, in some cases chopping technique is used to reduce the impact of the flicker noise, as shown in Fig. 1(b). PROPOSED SYSTEM: Fig. 3(a) shows the block diagram of the proposed fully digital architecture. In this structure, the processing of the bio-signal is performed in the time and digital domain. Hence, the advantages of digital CMOS technology are utilized. The analog bio-signal coming from the electrode is directly connected to the front-end circuit and is converted to time with a voltage-to-time converter (VTC). From this point on in the circuit, the signal information is in the phase of the VTC output signal. The output of the VTC is applied to the time-mode processing block, in which the anti-aliasing and offset cancellation are done in time domain. Then, a time-to-digital converter (TDC) transfers the time-mode signal into digital domain where other processes (digital filtering, data compression/reduction and so on) are performed. ADVANTAGES:• Compact • Low power consumption DISADVANTAGES:• Power consumption is high• Coverage area is high SOFTWARE IMPLEMENTATION• Modelsim• Xilinx ISE
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VLSI PROJECTS ABSTRACT 2016-2017 A SINGLE-ENDED WITH DYNAMIC FEEDBACK CONTROL 8T SUBTHRESHOLD SRAM CELL ABSTRACT: A novel 8-transistor (8T) static random access memory cell with improved data stability in subthreshold operation is designed. The proposed single-ended with dynamic feedback control 8T static RAM (SRAM) cell enhances the static noise margin (SNM) for ultralow power supply. It achieves write SNM of 1.4× and 1.28× as that of isoarea 6T and read-decoupled 8T (RD-8T), respectively, at 300 mV. The standard deviation of write SNM for 8T cell is reduced to 0.4× and 0.56× as that for 6T and RD-8T, respectively. It also possesses another striking feature of high read SNM ∼2.33×, 1.23×, and 0.89× as that of 5T, 6T, and RD-8T, respectively. The cell has hold SNM of 1.43×, 1.23×, and 1.05× as that of 5T, 6T, and RD-8T, respectively. The write time is 71% lesser than that of single-ended asymmetrical 8T cell. The proposed 8T consumes less write power 0.72×, 0.6×, and 0.85× as that of 5T, 6T, and isoarea RD-8T, respectively. The read power is 0.49× of 5T, 0.48× of 6T, and 0.64× of RD-8T. The power/energy consumption of 1-kb 8T SRAM array during read and write operations is 0.43× and 0.34×, respectively, of 1-kb 6T array. These features enable ultralow power applications of 8T. The proposed architecture of this paper area and power consumption analysis using tanner tool.Existing System: The portable microprocessor controlled devices contain embedded memory, which represents a large portion of the system-on-chip (SoC). These portable systems need ultralow power consuming circuits to utilize battery for longer duration. The power consumption can be minimized using nonconventional device structures, new circuit topologies, and optimizing the architecture. Although, voltage scaling has led to circuit operation in subthreshold regime with minimum power consumption, but there is a disadvantage of exponential reduction in performance. The circuit operation in the subthreshold regime has paved path toward ultralow power embedded memories, mainly static RAMs (SRAMs). However, in subthreshold regime, the data stability of SRAM cell is a severe problem and worsens with the scaling of MOSFET to subnanometer technology. Due to these limitations it becomes difficult to operate the conventional 6-transistor (6T) cell at ultralow voltage (ULV) power supply. In addition, 6T has a severe problem of read disturb. The basic and an effective way to eliminate this problem is the decoupling of true storing node from the bit lines during the read operation. This read decoupling approach is utilized by conventional 8-transistor [read decoupled 8-transistor (RD-8T)] cell which offers read static noise margin (RSNM) comparable with hold static noise margin (HSNM). However, RD-8T suffers from leakage introduced in read path. This leakage current increases with the scaling thereby, increasing the probability of failed read/write operations. Similar cells that maintain the cell current without disturbing the storage node are also proposed.Proposed System: To make a cell stable in all operations, single-ended with dynamic feedback control (SE-DFC) cell is presented in Fig. 1(a). The single-ended design is used to reduce the differential switching power during read–write operation. The power consumed during switching/ toggling of data on single bit line is lesser than that on differential bit-line pair. The SE-DFC enables writing through single nMOS in 8T. It also separates the read and write path and exhibits read decoupling. The structural change of cell is considered to enhance the immunity against the process–voltage–temperature (PVT) variations. It improves the static noise margin (SNM) of 8T cell in subthreshold/near-threshold region. The proposed 8T has one cross coupled inverter pair, in which each inverter is made up of three cascaded transistors. These two stacked cross-coupled inverters: M1–M2–M4 and M8–M6–M5 retain the data during hold mode. The write word line (WWL) controls only one nMOS transistor M7, used to transfer the data from single write bit line (WBL). A separate read bit line (RBL) is used to transfer the data from cell to the output when read word line (RWL) is activated. Two columns biased feedback control signals: FCS1 and FCS2 lines are used to control the feedback cutting transistors: M6 and M2, respectively.ADVANTAGES:• higher power saving capability during read/write operations• higher Static Noise MarginDISADVANTAGES:• Low SNM• High power consumption SOFTWARE IMPLEMENTATION:• Tanner tools
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VLSI PROJECTS ABSTRACT 2016-2017 FLEXIBLE DSP ACCELERATOR ARCHITECTURE EXPLOITING CARRY-SAVE ARITHMETIC ABSTRACT: Hardware acceleration has been proved an extremely promising implementation strategy for the digital signal processing (DSP)domain. Rather than adopting a monolithic application-specific integrated circuit design approach, in this brief, we present a novel accelerator architecture comprising flexible computational units that support the execution of a large set of operation templates found in DSP kernels.We differentiate from previous works on flexible accelerators by enabling computations to be aggressively performed with carry-save (CS) formatted data. Advanced arithmetic design concepts, i.e., recoding techniques, are utilized enabling CS optimizations to be performed in a larger scope than in previous approaches.The proposed architecture of this paper analysis the logic size, area and power consumption using Xilinx 14.2. EXISTING SYSTEM: Modern embedded systems target high-end application domains requiring efficient implementations of computationally intensive digital signal processing (DSP) functions. The incorporation of heterogeneity through specialized hardware accelerators improves performance and reduces energy consumption. Although application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) form the ideal acceleration solution in terms of performance and power, their inflexibility leads to increased silicon complexity, as multiple instantiated ASICs are needed to accelerate various kernels. Many researchers have proposed the use of domain-specific coarse-grained re-configurable accelerators in order to increase ASICs’ flexibility without significantly compromising their performance. PROPOSED SYSTEM: The proposed flexible accelerator architecture is shown in Fig. 1.Each FCU operates directly on CS operands and produces data in the same form 1 for direct reuse of intermediate results. Each FCU operates on 16-bit operands. Such a bit-length is adequate for the most DSP data paths, but the architectural concept of the FCU can be straightforwardly adapted for smaller or larger bit-lengths.The number of FCUs is determined at design time based on theILP and area constraints imposed by the designer. The CS to B in module is a ripple-carry adder and converts the CS form to the two’ s complement one. The register bank consists of scratch registers and is used for storing intermediate results and sharing operands among the FCUs. Different DSP kernels (i.e., different register allocation and data communication patterns per kernel) can be mapped on to the proposed architecture using post-RTL data path interconnection sharing techniques. The control unit drives the overall architecture (i.e., communication between the data port and the register bank, configuration words of the FCUs and selection signals for the multiplexers) in each clock cycle. ADVANTAGES:• high degrees of computational density• reduce the area • reduce the power DISADVANTAGES:• high the area • high the powerSOFTWARE IMPLEMENTATION:• Modelsim• Xilinx ISE
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VLSI PROJECTS ABSTRACT 2016-2017: HARDWARE AND ENERGY-EFFICIENT STOCHASTIC LU DECOMPOSITION SCHEME FOR MIMO RECEIVERS ABSTRACT: In this paper, we design a hardware and energy-efficient stochastic lower–upper decomposition (LUD) scheme for multiple-input multiple-output receivers. By employing stochastic computation, the complex arithmetic operations in LUD can be performed with simple logic gates. With proposed dual partition computation method, the stochastic multiplier and divider exhibit high computation accuracy with relative short length stochastic stream. The proposed architecture of this paper analysis the logic size, area and power consumption using Xilinx 14.2.EXISTING SYSTEM: Generally, there are two main approaches for the matrix decomposition method in MIMO systems: 1) QR decomposition and 2) lower–upper decomposition (LUD). QR decomposition algorithm, which transfers a matrix into an orthogonal matrix and an upper triangular matrix, is widely employed in the path-search-based MIMO-detection algorithm. In the other aspect, LUD algorithm factorizes a matrix into a lower triangular matrix and an upper triangular matrix. LUD has the same function as QR decomposition, which serves for a path search-based MIMO detection. Moreover, LUD is an indispensable processing in the zero-force (ZF) and the minimum mean square error (MMSE)-based MIMO system. In this paper, we focus on the implementation of LUD algorithm.PROPOSED SYSTEM: Stochastic computation is a powerful tool for signal processing systems. Information is represented by the statistical mean of a random bit stream. In this paper, we apply a signed stochastic stream to represent the FP signal in two’s complement system (TCS). As shown in Fig. 1(a), the absolute value of x is compared with a positive random number with uniform distributions. A binary bit stream X is obtained at the output of the comparator with the value bit a(X), while the signed bit of the TCS signals x is outputted directly as a stream s(X). For example, in order to represent a value of −0.6, six out of ten bits are 1 in a(X), and the bits in the signed stream s(X) are 1.ADVANTAGES:• high hardware efficiency• high power efficiency DISADVANTAGES• Low hardware efficiency• Low power efficiencySOFTWARE IMPLEMENTATION• Modelsim• Xilinx ISE
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