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VLSI PROJECTS ABSTRACT 2016-2017 A NEW BINARY-HALVED CLUSTERING METHOD AND ERT PROCESSOR FOR ASSR SYSTEM ABSTRACT: This pape r presents an automatic speech–speaker recognition (ASSR) system implemented in a chip which includes a built-in extraction, recognition, and training (ERT) core. For VLSI design (here, ASSR system), the hardware cost and time complexity are always the important issues which are improved in this proposed design in two levels: 1) algorithmic and 2) architecture. At the algorithm level, a newly binary-halved clustering (BHC) is proposed to achieve low time complexity and low memory requirement. In addition, at the architecture level, a new ERT core is proposed and implemented based on data dependence and reuse mechanism to reduce the time and hardware cost as well. Finally, the chip implementation is synthesized, placed, and routed using TSMC 90-nm technology library. To verify the performance of the proposed BHC method, a case study is performed based on nine speakers. Moreover, the validation of the ASSR system is examined in two parts: 1) speech recognition and 2) speaker recognition. The proposed architecture of this paper analysis the logic size, area and power consumption using Xilinx 14.2.EXISTING SYSTEM: Bapat et al. developed an ASIC-based speech recognition system considering HMM models. In literature, the HMM-based systems were applied to the large-vocabulary speech recognition tasks, which consider the higher level acoustic models (e.g., sentence or word level). Certainly, the higher level acoustic models are formed by concatenating the very basic lower level models, such as syllable or phoneme (biphone or triphone). In contrast, DTW-based system considers frame instead of syllable or phone as basis. It performs the recognition task by sequencing frame by frame, which certainly reduces the time complexity compared with the HMM-based system. Such an advantage fascinates to apply DTW method for lower or middle size vocabularies maintaining the higher recognition rate. In this concern, Wu and Kuo proposed an ASIC-based design adopting the traditional DTW-based method which has better time efficiency than the HMM-based method. Nonetheless, the traditional DTW-based method faces a vital problem called speaker variations. PROPOSED SYSTEM: To realize the proposed ASSR system including BHC in a chip, a system level architecture is shown in Fig. 1. As shown, the architecture consists of two major blocks—processing and control blocks. Inside the processing block, there are five subblocks including an ERT core, three memory blocks (speech models, speaker models, and feature memory), and a debug unit. The memories concern with speaker models and features are based on SRAM. However, the memory of speech models is based on ROM. There are two sets of addresses (suffixed by 1 and 2) and data buses (suffixed by 1 and 2) accompanied with one 4 × 1 MUX (M1) for data output and one 1:8 de-MUX (M2) for data input. The ERT core performs the main computational operations, whereas three memory blocks store the data of speaker models, voice features, and speech models as shown in Fig. 1. The debug unit performs as interface with the rest of the blocks and input/output lines through control block. The control block consists of a control unit, a control register, a 2:1 de-MUX, and a synchronous unit, which includes a combinational block with a delay circuit. The control unit is connected to M2 through the control register, interrupt, and data fetch line by M3. The M3 regulates the chip modes (normal/debug). The control unit handles the scheduling and communication to the major six subblocks of the processing blocks.ADVANTAGES:• low-cost • high-flexibility performances DISADVANTAGES:• High cost • low flexibility performancesSOFTWARE IMPLEMENTATION:• Modelsim• Xilinx ISE
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JAVA /DOT NET PROJECTS ABSTRACT 2016-2017 INTELLIGENT HANDS FREE SPEECH BASED SMS SYSTEM ON ANDROID ABSTRACT: Over the years speech recognition has taken the market. The speech input can be used in varying domains such as automatic reader and for inputting data to the system. Speech recognition can minimize the use of text and other types of input, at the same time minimizing the calculation needed for the process. Decade back speech recognition was difficult to use in any system, but with elevation in technology leading to new algorithms, techniques and advanced tools. Now it is possible to generate the desired speech recognition output. One such method is the hidden markov models which is used in this paper. Voice or signaled input is inserted through any speech device such as microphone, then speech can be processed and convert it to text hence able to send SMS, also Phone number can be entering either by voice or you may select it from contact list. Voice has opened up data input for a variety of user’s such as illiterate, Handicapped, as if the person cannot write then the speech input is a boon and other’s too which Can lead to better usage of the application. This application also included that user can only input numeric character for contact information, i.e. the security validation for number is done. SR will listen to input and convert numeric to text and will be displayed on contact information to verify. If any user try to insert any other character into the information an error would be displayed e.g. if user speaks his name for contact, it will be displayed as invalid contact. The message box can accept any character. To use the speech recognition user has to be loud and clear so that command is properly executed by the system.SYSTEM SPECIFICATION:HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS: System : Pentium IV 2.4 GHz. Hard Disk : 40 GB. Floppy Drive : 1.44 Mb. Monitor : 14’ Colour Monitor. Mouse : Optical Mouse. Ram : 512 Mb.SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS: Operating system : Windows 7 Ultimate. Coding Language : Java. Front-End : Eclipse. Data Base : Sqlite Manger.Conclusion: An automatic speech recognizer studied and implemented on the android platform which gives much accuracy for both numeric and alpha numeric inputs. Developed Speech recognizer system tested for a SMS sending application and found that it recognizes the speech to an accuracy of more than 90%. Enter phone number by speech or select contact from contact list. As user presses select contact here by selecting name of person it gives all phone numbers of that person in phone contact list box. Now it is possible to send sms to all numbers of same person on one click which results in reducing time of searching each number. The accuracy of this system is about 90%, and delay for recognition is less than 100 ns. This system tested for various speakers which had varying speech speed, amplitude and frequency. The results of this system are very good and recognized most of the speech inputs. We plan to implement this work for other languages as well as test them on the SMS sending application which is developed.
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JAVA /DOT NET PROJECTS ABSTRACT 2016-2017 INVERTED LINEAR QUADTREE: EFFICIENT TOP K SPATIAL KEYWORD SEARCH ABSTRACT: In this paper, With advances in geo-positioning technologies and geo-location services, there are a rapidly growing amount of spatiotextual objects collected in many applications such as location based services and social networks, in which an object is described by its spatial location and a set of keywords (terms). Consequently, the study of spatial keyword search which explores both location and textual description of the objects has attracted great attention from the commercial organizations and research communities. In the paper, we study two fundamental problems in the spatial keyword queries: top k spatial keyword search (TOPK-SK), and batch top k spatial keyword search (BTOPK-SK). Given a set of spatio-textual objects, a query location and a set of query keywords, the TOPK-SK retrieves the closest k objects each of which contains all keywords in the query. BTOPK-SK is the batch processing of sets of TOPK-SK queries. Based on the inverted index and the linear quadtree, we propose a novel index structure, called inverted linear quadtree (IL- Quadtree), which is carefully designed to exploit both spatial and keyword based pruning techniques to effectively reduce the search space. An efficient algorithm is then developed to tackle top k spatial keyword search. To further enhance the filtering capability of the signature of linear quadtree, we propose a partition based method. In addition, to deal with BTOPK-SK, we design a new computing paradigm which partition the queries into groups based on both spatial proximity and the textual relevance between queries. We show that the IL-Quad tree technique can also efficiently support BTOPK-SK. Comprehensive experiments on real and synthetic data clearly demonstrate the efficiency of our methods.EXISTING SYSTEMS: The Existing Techniques for the problem of TOPK-SK query as well as some other variants of top k spatial keyword search. Then other spatial keyword related queries are introduced. Considering the indexing scheme used in existing works, we classify the indexes into two categories, namely Keyword First Index and Spatial First Index. we describe the shortcomings of the existing indexing approaches. the system throughout is poor if a large number of queries are processed one by one. Motivated by this, a large body of existing work have been devoted to investigate how to improve the system throughout with the batch query processing techniques such that a large number of queries in the queue can be processed with a reasonable delay.PROPOSED SYSTEMS: we propose a novel index structure, called inverted linear quadtree (IL- Quadtree), which is carefully designed to exploit both spatial and keyword based pruning techniques to effectively reduce the search space. An efficient algorithm is then developed to tackle top k spatial keyword search. the spatial keyword rank- ing query is proposed to rank objects based on a scoring function which considers the distance to the query location as well as the textual relevance to the query keywords. In the paper, we adopt the linear quadtree structure because the quadtree is more flexible in the sense that the index is adaptive to the distribution of the objects and we may prune the objects at high levels of the quadtree. Clearly, the new structure proposed satisfies the above-mentioned three important criteria of the spatial keyword indexing method.Advantages:An efficient algorithm is developed to support the top k spatial keyword search by taking advantage of the IL-Quadtree. We further propose a partition based method to enhance the effectiveness of the signature of linear quadtree.The main difference is that the construction of WIBR-tree takes advantage of the term frequencies of the keywords to facilitate the joint TOPK-SK queries.Disadvantages: In the GPS navigation system, a POI (point of interest) is a geographically anchored pushpin that someone may find useful or interesting, which is usually annotated with texture information (e.g., descriptions and users’ reviews). Moreover, in many social network services (e.g., Facebook, Flickr), a huge number of geo-tagged photographs are accu- mulated everyday, which can be geo-tagged by users, GPS- enabled smartphones or cameras with a built-in GPS receiver . These uploaded pho- tographs are usually associated with multiple text labels. As a result, in recent years various spatial keyword query models and techniquesHARDWARE REQUIREMENTS: Hardware - Pentium Speed - 1.1 GHz RAM - 1GB Hard Disk - 20 GB Floppy Drive - 1.44 MB Key Board - Standard Windows Keyboard Mouse - Two or Three Button Mouse Monitor - SVGASOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS: Operating System : Windows Technology : Java and J2EE Web Technologies : Html, JavaScript, CSS IDE : My Eclipse Web Server : Tomcat Tool kit : Android Phone Database : My SQL Java Version : J2SDK1.5 Conclusion: The problem of top k spatial keyword search is important due to the increasing amount of spatio-textual objects collected in a wide spectrum of applications. In the paper, we propose a novel index structure, namely IL-Quadtree, to organize the spatio-textual objects. An efficient algorithm is developed to support the top k spatial keyword search by taking advantage of the IL-Quadtree. We further propose a partition based method to enhance the effectiveness of the signature of linear quadtree. To facilitate a large amount of spatial keyword queries, we propose a BTOPK-SK algorithm as well as a query group algorithm to enhance the performance of the system. Our comprehensive experiments convincingly demonstrate the efficiency of our techniques.
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IEEE 2016 - 2017 Power Electronics and Power Systems Titles1) Investigation of Negative-Sequence Injection Capability of Cascaded H-Bridge Converters in Star and Delta Configuration2) A Novel Control for a Cascaded Buck Boost PFC Converter Operating in Discontinuous Capacitor Voltage Mode3) A Single-Phase Buck-Boost Matrix Converter with Only Six Switches and Without Commutation Problem4) Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System Least Mean Square Based Control Algorithm for DSTATCOM5) Average-Value Model of Modular Multilevel Converters Considering Capacitor Voltage Ripple6) LMF Based Control Algorithm for Single Stage Three-Phase Grid Integrated Solar PV System7) Analysis of bi-directional piezoelectric-based converters for zero-voltage switching operation8) A Multi-Level Converter with a Floating Bridge for Open-Ended Winding Motor Drive Applications9) Variable Duty Cycle Control for Quadratic Boost PFC Converter10) Pulse Pattern Modulated Strategy for Harmonic Current Components Reduction in Three-Phase AC-DC Converters11) Practical Layouts and DC-Rail Voltage Clamping Techniques of Z-Source Inverters12) A Low Capacitance Cascaded H-Bridge Multi-Level StatCom13) Impedance networks and its Application in Power for Electric Traction Systems14) Phase Current Balance Control Using DC-Link Current Sensor for Multi-Phase Converters with Discontinuous Current Mode Considered 15) Efficient Single Phase Transformerless Inverter for Grid-Tied PVG System With Reactive Power Control16) Single-Stage High Power Factor Converters Requiring Low DC-Link Capacitance to Drive Power LEDs17) High Efficiency Bi-Directional Converter for Flywheel Energy Storage Application18) Z-Source Resonant Converter with Power Factor Correction for Wireless Power Transfer Applications19) Design of External Inductor for Improving Performance of Voltage Controlled DSTATCOM20) A Single-Switch AC-DC LED Driver Based on a Boost-Flyback PFC Converter with Lossless Snubber21) Control and Analysis of the Modular Multilevel DC De-Icer with STATCOM Functionality22) Combined Phase Shift and Frequency Modulation of a Dual Active Bridge AC-DC Converter with PFC23) Least Power Point Tracking Method for Photovoltaic Differential Power Processing Systems24) Experimental Investigation on a Hybrid Series Active Power Compensator to Improve Power Quality of Typical Households25) Soft Start and Voltage Control of Induction Motors using Floating Capacitor Hbridge Converters26) High Performance Predictive Control of Quasi Impedance Source Inverter27) Analysis of the Integrated SEPIC-Flyback Converter as a Single-Stage Single-Switch Power-Factor-Correction LED Driver28) Matrix Converter Based Active Distribution Transformer29) Universal AC Input High Density Power Adapter Design with a Clamped Series Resonant30) SVM Strategies for Common-Mode Current Reduction in Transformerless Current-Source Drives at Low Modulation Index31) A Single-stage High Frequency Resonant AC/AC Converter32) Analysis and Control of Neutral-Point Voltage for Transformerless Three-Level PV Inverter in LVRT Operation33) A Hybrid-STATCOM with Wide Compensation Range and Low DC-Link Voltage34) A Single-Stage Single-Switch LED Driver Based on Class-E Converter35) Impedance Coordinative Control for Cascaded Converter in Bidirectional Application36) A DC-voltage Controlled Variable Capacitor for Stabilizing the ZVS Frequency of a Resonant Converter for Wireless Power Transfer37) Combined LMS-LMF Based Control Algorithm of DSTATCOM for Power Quality Enhancement in Distribution System38) Interleaved SEPIC Power Factor Pre-Regulator Using Coupled Inductors in Discontinuous Conduction Mode with Wide Output Voltage39) Model Predictive Control Scheme of Five-Leg AC-DC-AC Converter-Fed Induction Motor Drive40) A Virtual RLC Damper to Stabilize DC/DC Converters Having an LC Input Filter while Improving the Filter Performance41) Synchronous Power Controller with Flexible Droop Characteristics for Renewable Power Generation Systems42) A Buck Power Factor Correction Converter with Predictive Quadratic Sinusoidal Current Modulation and Line Voltage Reconstruction43) A Real-time Variable Turn-off Current Strategy for PFC Converter with Voltage Spike Limitation and Efficiency Improvement44) A Common Grounded Z-Source DC-DC Converter with High Voltage Gain45) A Digital Predictive Current Mode Controller for Single Phase High Frequency Transformer Isolated Dual Active Bridge DC to DC Converter46) A High-Voltage Compliant Current-to-Digital Sensor for DC-DC Converters in Standard CMOS Technology47) A New Single-Switch Isolated High-Gain Hybrid Boosting Converter48) A Novel Approach to Generate Effective Carrier-Based Pulsewidth Modulation Strategies for Diode-Clamped Multilevel DC-AC Converters49) A Novel Medium-Voltage Modular Multilevel DC-DC Converter50) A PWM Plus Phase-Shift Controlled Interleaved Isolated Boost Converter Based on Semi-Active Quadrupler Rectifier for High Step-Up Applications51) Analysis and Design of Current-Fed High Step Up PWM Controlled Quasi-Resonant DC-DC Converter for Fuel Cell Applications52) Analysis and Implementation of a Non-Isolated Bidirectional DC-DC Converter with High Voltage Gain53) Capacitor Aging Detection in DC-DC Converter Output Stage54) Derivation of Dual-Switch Step-Down DC/DC Converters with Fault-Tolerant Capability55) Design and Analysis of a High Efficiency DCDC Converter with Soft Switching Capability for Renewable Energy Applications Requiring High Voltage Gain56) Design and Steady State Analysis of Parallel Resonant DC-DC Converter for High Voltage Power Generator57) Digital Control of a High Voltage (2.5 kV) Bidirectional DC-DC Flyback Converter for Driving a Capacitive Incremental Actuator58) Downsizing Effects of Integrated Magnetic Components in High Power Density DC-DC Converters for EV and HEV59) Effective Voltage Balance Control for Bipolar-DC-Bus Fed EV Charging Station with Three-Level DC-DC Fast Charger60) Feed-Forward based Control in a DC-DC Converter of Asymmetric Multistage Stacked Boost Architecture61) High Step-Up/Step-Down Soft-Switching Bidirectional DC-DC Converter with Coupled-Inductor and Voltage Matching Control for Energy Storage Systems62) High-Efficiency Asymmetric Forward-Fly back Converter for Wide Output Power Range63) Isolated Double Step-down DC-DC Converter with Improved ZVS Range and No Transformer Saturation Problem64) Minimum-Current-Stress Scheme of Dual Active Bridge DC-DC Converter with Unified-phase-shift Control65) Model Predictive Control of Capacitor Voltage Balancing for Cascaded Modular DC-DC Converters66) Model Predictive Voltage Control for Single Inductor Multiple-Output DC-DC Converter with Reduced Cross Regulation67) Parasitics Assisted Soft-switching and Secondary Modulated Snubberless Clamping Current-fed Bidirectional Voltage Doubler for Fuel Cell Vehicles68) Stability Analysis and Stabilization methods of DC Microgrid with Multiple Parallel-Connected DC-DC Converters loaded by CPLs69) Steady-State Analysis of Inductor Conduction Modes in the Quadratic Boost Converter70) Suppression of the Peak Harmonics from Loads by Using a Variable Capacitance Filter in Low-Voltage DC/DC Converters71) Topology Derivation and Generalized Analysis of Zero-Voltage-Switching Synchronous DC-DC Converters with Coupled Inductors72) Unified Triple-Phase-Shift Control to Minimize Current Stress and Achieve Full Soft Switching of Isolated Bidirectional DC-DC Converter73) A New Transformerless Buck-Boost Converter With Positive Output Voltage74) Derivation of Dual-Switch Step-Down DC/DC Converters with Fault-Tolerant Capability75) Digital Sensorless Current Mode Control Based on Charge Balance Principle and Dual Current Error Compensation for DC–DC Converters in DCM
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JAVA/ DOT NET PROJECTS ABSTRACT 2016-2017 CATCH YOU IF YOU MISBEHAVE: RANKED KEYWORD SEARCH RESULTS VERIFICATION IN CLOUD COMPUTING ABSTRACT: With the advent of cloud computing, more and more people tend to outsource their data to the cloud. As a fundamental data utilization, secure keyword search over encrypted cloud data has attracted the interest of many researchers recently. However, most of existing researches are based on an ideal assumption that the cloud server is “curious but honest”, where the search results are not verified. In this paper, we consider a more challenging model, where the cloud server would probably behave dishonestly. Based on this model, we explore the problem of result verification for the secure ranked keyword search. Different from previous data verification schemes, we propose a novel deterrent-based scheme. With our carefully devised verification data, the cloud server cannot know which data owners, or how many data owners exchange anchor data which will be used for verifying the cloud server’s misbehavior. With our systematically designed verification construction, the cloud server cannot know which data owners’ data are embedded in the verification data buffer, or how many data owners’ verification data are actually used for verification. All the cloud server knows is that, once he behaves dishonestly, he would be discovered with a high probability, and punished seriously once discovered. Furthermore, we propose to optimize the value of parameters used in the construction of the secret verification data buffer. Finally, with thorough analysis and extensive experiments, we confirm the efficacy and efficiency of our proposed schemes.EXISTING SYSTEM: However, most of existing researches are based on an ideal assumption that the cloud server is “curious but honest”, where the search results are not verified. In this paper, we consider a more challenging model, where the cloud server would probably behave dishonestly. Based on this model, we explore the problem of result verification for the secure ranked keyword search. Different from previous data verification schemes, we propose a novel deterrent-based scheme. With our carefully devised verification data, the cloud server cannot know which data owners, or how many data owners exchange anchor data which will be used for verifying the cloud server’s misbehavior.PROPOSED SYSTEM: Furthermore, we propose to optimize the value of parameters used in the construction of the secret verification data buffer. Finally, with thorough analysis and extensive experiments, we confirm the efficacy and efficiency of our proposed schemes. proposed to save communication cost; Returning too much verification data would make the top-k ranked search meaningless. Additionally, in the ‘pay as you consume’ cloud computing environment, returning too much data would cause considerable expenses for data users, which would make the cloud computing lose its attractiveness.Hardware Requirements:• System : Pentium IV 2.4 GHz.• Hard Disk : 40 GB.• Floppy Drive : 1.44 Mb.• Monitor : 14’ Colour Monitor.• Mouse : Optical Mouse.• Ram : 512 Mb.Software Requirements:• Operating system : Windows 7 Ultimate.• Coding Language : ASP.Net with C#• Front-End : Visual Studio 2010 Professional.• Data Base : SQL Server 2008.Conclusion: In this paper, we explore the problem of verification for the secure ranked keyword search, under the model where cloud servers would probably behave dishonestly. Different from previous data verification schemes, we propose a novel deterrent-based scheme. During the whole process of verification, the cloud server is not clear of which data owners, or how many data owners exchange anchor data used for verification, he also does not know which data owners’ data are embedded in the verification data buffer or how many data owners’ verification data are actually used for verification. All the cloud server knows is that, once he behaves dishonestly, he would be discovered with a high probability, and punished seriously once discovered. Additionally, when any suspicious action is detected, data owners can dynamically update the verification data stored on the cloud server. Furthermore, our proposed scheme allows the data users to control the communication cost for the verification according to their preferences, which is especially important for the resource limited data users. Finally, with thorough analysis and extensive experiments, we confirm the efficacy and efficiency of our proposed schemes.
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VLSI PROJECTS ABSTRACT 2016-2017 A HIGH THROUGHPUT LIST DECODER ARCHITECTURE FOR POLAR CODES ABSTRACT: While long polar codes can achieve the capacity of arbitrary binary-input discrete memoryless channels when decoded by a low complexity successive-cancellation (SC) algorithm, the error performance of the SC algorithm is inferior for polar codes with finite block lengths. The cyclic redundancy check (CRC)-aided SC list (SCL) decoding algorithm has better error performance than the SC algorithm. However, current CRC-aided SCL decoders still suffer from long decoding latency and limited throughput. In this paper, a reduced latency list decoding (RLLD) algorithm for polar codes is proposed. Our RLLD algorithm performs the list decoding on a binary tree, whose leaves correspond to the bits of a polar code. In existing SCL decoding algorithms, all the nodes in the tree are traversed, and all possibilities of the information bits are considered. Instead, our RLLD algorithm visits much fewer nodes in the tree and considers fewer possibilities of the information bits. When configured properly, our RLLD algorithm significantly reduces the decoding latency and, hence, improves throughput, while introducing little performance degradation. Based on our RLLD algorithm, we also propose a high throughput list decoder architecture, which is suitable for larger block lengths due to its scalable partial sum computation unit. Our decoder architecture has been implemented for different block lengths and list sizes using the TSMC 90-nm CMOS technology. The implementation results demonstrate that our decoders achieve significant latency reduction and area efficiency improvement compared with the other list polar decoders in the literature. The proposed architecture of this paper analysis the logic size, area and power consumption using Xilinx 14.2. EXISTING SYSTEM: Despite its significantly improved error performance, the hardware implementations of SC-based list decoders [7]–[11] still suffer from long decoding latency and limited throughput due to the serial decoding schedule. In order to reduce the decoding l atency of an SC-based list decoder, M (M > 1) bits are decoded in parallel in [12]–[14], where the decoding speed can be improved by M times ideally. However, for the hardware implementations of the algorithms in [12]–[14], the actual decoding speed improvement is less than M times due to extra decoding cycles on finding the L most reliable paths among 2M L candidates, where L is the list size. A software adaptive simplified SC (SSC)-list-CRC decoder was proposed in [15]. For a (2048, 1723) polar + CRC-32 code, the SSC-list-CRC decoder with L = 32 was shown to be about seven times faster than an SC-based list decoder. However, it is unclear whether the list decoder in [15] is suitable for hardware implementation.PROPOSED SYSTEM: In this paper, an RLLD algorithm is proposed to reduce the decoding latency of SC list decoding for polar codes. For a node v, let Iv denote the total number of leaf nodes that are associated with information bits. Let Xth be a predefined threshold value and X0 and X1 be predefined parameters.Moreover, our RLLD algorithm works on a pruned tree. As a result, our RLLD algorithm visits fewer nodes than the SCL algorithm. The full binary tree is pruned in two steps.1) Step 1: Starting from the complete tree representation of a polar code, label all FP nodes such that the parent node of each of them is not an FP node. For each labeled FP node, remove all its child nodes. 2) Step 2: Based on the pruned tree from Step 1, label all rate-0 and rate-1 nodes such that the parent node of each of these rate-0 and rate-1 nodes is not a rate-0 and rate-1 node, respectively. In the next, remove all child nodes of each of a labeled rate-0 and rate-1 node.ADVANTAGES:• reduce the decoding latency• reduce the size of message memories DISADVANTAGES:• the size of message memories are large SOFTWARE IMPLEMENTATION• Modelsim• Xilinx ISE
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VLSI PROJECTS ABSTRACT 2016-2017 DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF HIGH-SPEED ALL-PASS TRANSFORMATION-BASED VARIABLE DIGITAL FILTERS BY BREAKING THE DEPENDENCE OF OPERATING FREQUENCY ON FILTER ORDER ABSTRACT: All-pass transformation (APT)-based variable digital filters (VDFs), also known as frequency warped VDFs, are typically used in various audio signal-processing applications. In an APT-based VDF, all-pass filter structures of appropriate order are used to replace the delay elements in a prototype filter structure. The resultant filter can provide variable frequency responses with unabridged control over cutoff frequencies on the fly, without updating the filter coefficients. In this brief, we briefly review the first- and second-order APT-based VDFs along with their hardware implementation architectures, and provide generalized design procedures to realize them as per required specifications. We also propose the modified pipelined hardware implementation architectures for both the first- and second-order APT-based VDFs. Field-programmable gate array implementation results of different first- and second-order APT-based VDF designs for both non-pipelined and pipelined implementation architectures are presented. An analysis of the results shows that the proposed pipelined implementation architectures result in high-speed VDFs, achieving high operating frequencies that are independent of the prototype filter order, for both the first- and second-order APT-based VDF designs. The proposed architecture of this paper analysis the logic size, area and power consumption using Xilinx 14.2. EXISTING SYSTEM: The APT-based VDFs, also known as frequency warped VDFs, are widely used in applications, such as audio equalization, the design of warped adaptive filters and discrete Fourier transform-based filter banks, and hearing aids. Combination of the APT technique with coefficient decimation techniques to achieve low complexity implementations of the first- and second-order APT-based VDFs was recently proposed. In this brief, we present a brief review of the first- and second-order APT-based VDFs along with their hardware implementation architectures. We provide generalized design procedures to design these VDFs and propose the modified pipelined hardware implementation architectures to achieve high-speed filter realizations. The hardware implementation results obtained for multiple first- and second-order APT-based VDF designs using the conventional non-pipelined as well as the proposed pipelined implementation architectures are presented and analyzed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that addresses the implementation of high-speed APT-based VDFs.PROPOSED SYSTEM: For all the VDF implementations discussed in this design example, the bit-lengths for the different computational blocks were kept constant. These bit-lengths were selected by verifying that the resultant frequency responses satisfied the desired passband and stopband peak ripple specifications. In addition, digital signal processing block inference was disabled since the fixed filter coefficients and the complex VDF architectures do not gain any significant benefits from their use. Table II shows the implementation results for the six VDFs obtained after placement and routing. It was observed that as the prototype filter order increased, the maximum operating frequencies of the first- and second-order APT-based VDFs decreased proportionately. This was due to increase in length of the resultant critical data paths. ADVANTAGES:• Resource utilization is high• High operating frequencyDISADVANTAGES:• Resource utilization is less• low operating frequencySOFTWARE IMPLEMENTATION• Modelsim• Xilinx ISE
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VLSI PROJECTS ABSTRACT 2016-2017 INPUT-BASED DYNAMIC RECONFIGURATION OF APPROXIMATE ARITHMETIC UNITS FOR VIDEO ENCODING ABSTRACT: The field of approximate computing has received significant attention from the research community in the past few years, especially in the context of various signal processing applications. Image and video compression algorithms, such as JPEG, MPEG, and so on, are particularly attractive candidates for approximate computing, since they are tolerant of computing imprecision due to human imperceptibility, which can be exploited to realize highly power-efficient implementations of these algorithms. However, existing approximate architectures typically fix the level of hardware approximation statically and are not adaptive to input data. For example, if a fixed approximate hardware configuration is used for an MPEG encoder (i.e., a fixed level of approximation), the output quality varies greatly for different input videos. This paper addresses this issue by proposing a reconfigurable approximate architecture for MPEG encoders that optimizes power consumption with the goal of maintaining a particular Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) threshold for any video. We propose two heuristics for automatically tuning the approximation degree of the RABs in these two modules during runtime based on the characteristics of each individual video. The proposed architecture of this paper analysis the logic size, area and power consumption using Xilinx 14.2. EXISTING SYSTEM: MPEG has for long been the most preferred video compression scheme in modern video applications and devices. Using the MPEG-2/MPEG-4 standards, videos can be squeezed to very small sizes. MPEG uses both interframe and intraframe encoding for video compression. Intraframe encoding involves encoding the entire frame of data, while interframe encoding utilizes predictive and interpolative coding techniques as means of achieving compression. The interframe version exploits the high temporal redundancy between adjacent frames and only encodes the differences in information between the frames, thus resulting in greater compression ratios. In addition, motion compensated interpolative coding scales down the data further through the use of bidirectional prediction. In this case, the encoding takes place based upon the differences between the current frame and the previous and next frames in the video sequence. PROPOSED SYSTEM: Dynamic variation of the DA can be done when each of the adder/subtractor blocks is equipped with one or more of its approximate copies and it is able to switch between them as per requirement. This reconfigurable architecture can include any approximate version of the adders/subtractors. ADVANTAGES:• Optimize the power consumption DISADVANTAGES:• Power consumption is high SOFTWARE IMPLEMENTATION:• Modelsim• Xilinx ISE
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