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Updates found with 'gamma radiation'

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Updates found with 'gamma radiation'

VLSI PROJECTS ABSTRACT 2016 -2017A LOW-COST RADIATION-HARDENED METHOD FOR PIPELINE PROTECTION IN MICROPROCESSORSABSTRACT: The aggressive scaling of semiconductor technology has significantly increased the radiation-induced soft-error rate in modern microprocessors. Meanwhile, due to the increasing complexity of modern processor pipelines and the limited error-tolerance capabilities that previous radiation hardening techniques can provide, the existing pipeline protection mechanisms cannot achieve complete protection. This paper proposes a complete and cost-effective pipeline protection mechanism using a self-checking architecture. The radiation-hardened pipeline is achieved by incorporating soft-error- and timing-error-tolerant flip-flop (SETTOFF)-based self-checking cells into the sequential cells of the pipeline. A replay recovery mechanism is also developed at the architectural level to recover the detected errors. The proposed pipeline protection technique is implemented in an Open RISC microprocessor in a 65-nm technology. A gate-level transient fault-injection and analysis technique is used to evaluate the error-tolerance capability of the proposed hardened pipeline design. The results show that compared with the techniques such as triple modular redundancy, the SETTOFF-based self-checking technique requires over 30% less area and 80% less power overheads. Meanwhile, the error-tolerant and self-checking capabilities of the register allow the proposed pipeline protection technique to provide a noticeably higher level of reliability for different parts of the pipeline compared with the previous pipeline protection techniques.
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IEEE 2016-2017 EMBEDDED PROJECTS ABSTRACTEXPERIMENTAL BIOMEDICAL EEG SIGNAL TRANSMISSION USING VLC ABSTRACT:- The proliferation of radio frequency (RF) communication technology in biomedical signal transmission is frequently flustered by electromagnetic interference. Even though the flexibility and mobility of RF-based communication have much attraction, the radiation brings damage to hospital equipments and even harm to humans. In this project we propose a novel scheme for transmission of electroencephalography (EEG) biomedical signal using a visible light communication (VLC) link. The data transmission is performed in line of sight (LOS) condition using ON–OFF keying no return to-zero modulation by utilizing all three components, red, green, and blue, of RGB LED. Experiments are carried out for transmitting EEG signals using the VLC link. The transmitter consists of RGB LEDs, and at the receiver side, three photodiodes with red, green, and blue color filters are installed. The experimental results show excellent reliability and accuracy of the proposed scheme.EXISTING SYSTEM:-• Low reliability due to some errors and noise signals.• Due to more fluctuations in signal, BER is increased• Sometimes, high RF radiation is exposure to hospital areas, it causes some problems in our health conditions• To overcome these drawbacks, proposed ideas are implementedPROPOSED SYSTEM:-• Proposed system consists of RGB LEDs. By using these LEDs, the transmitted signal is accurately received with very high reliability.• This system achieves low Bit Error Rate(BER) by reducing the Signal-to-noise ratio(SNR) • Rf radiation is controlled• It transmit not only the EEG data but also other biomedical data simultaneouslyHARDWARE REQUIRMENTS:-• AT89S52• PC• LIFI MODULE• EEG SENSOR• LCDSOFTWARE REQUIRMENTS:-• KEIL IDE• EMBEDDED C
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MATLAB PROJECTS ABSTRACT 2016-2017 MULTI-LEVEL CANONICAL CORRELATION ANALYSIS FOR STANDARD-DOSE PET IMAGE ESTIMATION ABSTRACT: Positron emission tomography (PET) images are widely used in many clinical applications such as tumor detection and brain disorder diagnosis. To obtain PET images of diagnostic quality, a sufficient amount of radioactive tracer has to be injected into a living body, which will inevitably increase the risk of radiation exposure. On the other hand, if the tracer dose is considerably reduced, the quality of the resulting images would be significantly degraded. It is of great interest to estimate standard-dose PET (S-PET) image from a low-dose one in order to reduce the risk of radiation exposure and preserve image quality. This may be achieved through mapping both standard-dose and low-dose PET data into a common space and then performing patch based sparse representation. However, alone-size-fits-all common space built from all training patches is unlikely to be optimal for each target S-PET patch, which limits the estimation accuracy. In this paper, we propose a data-driven multi-level Canonical Correlation Analysis (mCCA)scheme to solve this problem. Specifically, a subset of training data that is most useful in estimating a target S-PET patch is identified in each level, and then used in the next level to update common space and improve estimation. Additionally, we also use multi-modal magnetic resonance images to help improve the estimation with complementary information. Validations on phantom and real human brain datasets show that our method effectively estimates S-PET images and well preserves critical clinical quantification measures, such as standard uptake value.
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IEEE 2016 MAT LAB PROJECTS ABSTRACTOPTIMIZED LTE CELL PLANNING WITH VARYING SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL USER DENSITIES ABSTRACT: Base station deployment in cellular networks is one of the fundamental problems in network design. This paper proposes a novel method for the cell planning problem for the fourth generation (4G) cellular networks using meta-heuristic algorithms. In this approach, we aim to satisfy both cell coverage and capacity constraints simultaneously by formulating an optimization problem that captures practical planning aspects. The starting point of the planning process is defined through a dimensioning exercise that captures both coverage and capacity constraints. Afterwards, we implement a meta-heuristic algorithm based on swarm intelligence (e.g., particle swarm optimization or the recently-proposed grey wolf optimizer) to find suboptimal base station locations that satisfy both problem constraints in the area of interest which can be divided into several subareas with different spatial user densities. Subsequently, an iterative approach is executed to eliminate eventual redundant base stations. We also perform Monte Carlo simulations to study the performance of the proposed scheme and compute the average number of users in outage. Next, the problems of green planning with regards to temporal traffic variation and planning with location constraints due to tight limits on electromagnetic radiations are addressed, using the proposed method. Finally, in our simulation results, we apply our proposed approach for different scenarios with different subareas and user distributions and show that the desired network quality of service targets are always reached even for large-scale problems.
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IEEE 2016 POWER ELECTRONICS ABSTRACTZVS-ZCS HIGH VOLTAGE GAIN INTEGRATED BOOST CONVERTER FOR DC MICROGRID ABSTRACT: Efficient utilization of the different renewable energy sources is one of the main challenges of power and energy sector. In order to interconnect the renewable sources to the grid, power electronics interface are necessary. Solar PV systems are the most sought after renewable energy source due to the universal availability of the solar irradiation and the flexibility to install the PV panel at the consumer end. In order to improve the efficiency of the PV system by overcoming the losses due to the partial shading and module mismatches, modular PV systems are preferred for low power applications. Here a highly efficient, high voltage gain dc-dc converter is required to step up the low voltage output of the PV to that of the dc bus voltage. High voltage gain dc to dc converters are also required for various applications like UPS systems, fuel cells systems, battery bank, high intensity discharge (HID) lamps and server power supply etc. EXISTING SYSTEM: In a conventional boost converter obtaining a high voltage gain is limited by the poor efficiency operation caused due to the conduction losses and diodes’s reverse recovery losses. Isolated converters can be used to achieve high voltage gain. However, for low power applications, nonisolated converters are preferred due to their higher efficiency, good power density and lower cost. Changes in electric codes also favour the use of nonisolated converters for low power solar PV systems. Among the various nonisolated high gain dc-dc converters, coupled inductor based converters are attractive due to the freedom of increasing the voltage conversion gain by simply changing the turn’s ratio. Voltage spike on the switches due to the coupled inductor’s leakage energy is the main concern of these converters. Lossless passive clamp, or active clamp technique is used to limit this voltage spike on the switches. A boost converter is integrated with a flyback converter (Integrated boost converter) to obtain high voltage gain. Here the boost converter is acting as a passive clamp circuit which recycle the leakage energy. However, these converters suffer from high voltage stress on the output diode and thus necessary to use snubber circuit or high voltage rated diodes. PROPOSED SYSTEM: A nonisolated, soft switched integrated boost converter is proposed for dc microgrid. A resonant voltage quadrupler cell is integrated at the secondary terminals of the coupled inductor to obtain high voltage gain. The energy of the coupled inductor is transferred to the voltage multiplier cell during all the switching state of the MOSFET switch. Hence instead of a large magnetic core, a small sized core can be utilized to construct the coupled inductor. Thus overall power density of the converter is improved. In the proposed converter, capacitors of the voltage multiplier cell and the the secondary leakage inductance form a quasi resonant circuit. Hence all the diodes of the converter turn off with ZCS. The ZCS turn off reduces the high frequency turn off losses and reverse recovery losses of the diodes. In addition to this, ZCS turn off eliminates high voltage spike or ringing on the diodes caused due to the resonance between the stray capacitance of the diodes and the secondary leakage inductance. Proposed converter provide high voltage step up without large turns ratio and extreme duty ratio operation. Moreover, all the MOSFETs and diodes are subjected low voltage stress. Hence low voltage rated MOSFETs can be used to reduce the conduction losses. Aforementioned advantages make the proposed converter a good candidate to integrate low voltage renewable energy resources to the DC microgrid. ADVANTAGES:• High voltage step up without large turns ratio and extreme duty ratio operation.• All the mosfets and diodes are subjected low voltage stress.• Low voltage rated mosfets can be used to reduce the conduction losses.APPLICATIONS:• Regulated power supply.• UPS systems, fuel cells systems, battery bank, high intensity.• Discharge (HID) lamps and server power supply.
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IEEE 2016 PROJECTS POWER ELECTRONICS ABSTRACT. A FAMILY OF ISOLATED BUCK-BOOST CONVERTERS BASED ON SEMIACTIVE RECTIFIERS FOR HIGH-OUTPUT VOLTAGE APPLICATIONS. ABSTRACT: Isolated dc–dc converters are widely used to meet the input/output voltage range and galvanic isolation requirements in the renewable energy and battery discharging applications such as battery-sourced front-end converters for standalone renewable power systems, and maximum power point-tracking converters for grid-tied renewable power generation systems. Generally speaking, isolated converters can be classified into three categories: buck converters, boost converters, and buck-boost converters. Voltage step-down conversion can be implemented with isolated buck converters, and the efficiency decreases as the voltage conversion ratio decreases. In contrast, voltage step-up conversion is achieved with isolated boost converters, and the efficiency decreases as the voltage conversion ratio increases. Therefore, isolated buck and boost converters cannot achieve high conversion efficiency over wide input/output voltage range. However, achieving high-efficiency power conversion over a wide voltage range is of a great practical concern, especially for power systems that draw from renewable energy sources and batteries. For example, the output voltages of photovoltaic (PV) arrays may fluctuate over a wide range due to the variations in solar radiation and ambient temperature, and the terminal voltage of a battery also exhibits wide fluctuation due to change in its state of charge. EXISTING SYSTEM: A flyback TPC is presented for a microinverter. Compared to a traditional flyback converter, the time-sharing control scheme couples the primary-side power ports and limits the flexibility of energy delivery. A trimodal half-bridge TPC is proposed by integrating the half-bridge and active-clamp forward topologies. Two families of half-bridge TPCs with synchronous regulation and post regulation are proposed. These half-bridge TPCs have some obvious advantages in terms of saving cost and component count, and simplifying structure and power management. However, in comparison with the traditional two-port half-bridge converter, the efficiency is decreased because additional conduction losses are introduced by the free-wheeling operating stage. Moreover, it is difficult to decouple the power control loops and design optimized compensators for the three power ports because the voltage and power of all of the three power ports are regulated by the same control variables and the duty cycles of the two primary-side switches.PROPOSED SYSTEM: A novel family of IBB converters has been proposed and investigated. The IBBs are based on the nonisolated two-switch buck-boost converter, and generated by replacing the dc buck-cell and boost-cell in the nonisolated two-switch buck-boost converter by an ac buck-cell and boost-cell. SARs are developed by merging a half-bridge circuit and a switched capacitor circuit, and used as the boost-cell in the IBB converter for high-output voltage applications. The voltage stresses on the devices in the SAR are reduced significantly, and hence, low voltage rating devices with better conduction and switching performance have been used to improve efficiency. Furthermore, ZVS and ZCS have been achieved for all active switches and diodes, respectively, by adopting the phase-shift modulation. The major contribution is to propose a family of novel IBB converters by employing the SARs as boost-cells. Lower current stresses and isolated buck/boost conversion have been achieved for the proposed SAR-based converters compared with those with passive rectifiers. Owing to the phase shift modulation and capacitive output stage of the SAR, single-stage power conversion, soft-switching operation, and low-voltage stresses on all active switches and diodes can be achieved with the proposed family of converters, and high switching frequency can be adopted to make the input current ripple with high frequency and be easy to be eliminated in the real systems.ADVANTAGES:• Low current stress and the flexible design of the maximum efficiency point.• The voltage stresses on the devices in the SAR are reduced significantly, and hence, low voltage rating devices with better conduction and switching performance have been used to improve efficiency.• ZVS and ZCS have been achieved for all active switches and diodes, respectively, by adopting the phase-shift modulation.:APPLICATIONS:• Distributed renewable power system.• Electric vehicles.• Stand-alone renewable power system.• High-output voltage applications.
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IEEE 2016 POWER ELECTRONIC ABSTRACT:AN OPTIMAL METHOD TO DESIGN A TRAP-CL FILTER FOR A PV AC-MODULE BASED ON FLYBACK INVERTER ABSTRACT: Photovoltaic (PV) energy has been highlighted as a next-generation energy source to solve environmental pollution and energy exhaustion. In conventional centralized PV power generation systems, a number of PV-panels are connected in series and parallel to concentrate power. In this case, the centralized power conditioning system (PCS) cannot control all PV-panels at the maximum power point (MPP) because each PV-panel has different MPPs caused by mismatch problems under various environmental conditions, such as irradiation and temperature. To solve this problem, a modularized PV system which is called the ac-module has been proposed. It has only the rated power of the PV-panel because of the installation method, which involves attaching it to the back of the each PV-panel. Thus, the size and weight are important design considerations for the ac-module. Among the various topologies of the ac-module, the flyback-based inverter topology has been recognized as an effective solution to reduce the product size due to its simple configuration.EXISTING SYSTEM: The flyback converter is used in both AC/DC and DC/DC conversion with galvanic isolation between the input and any outputs. . More precisely, the flyback converter is a buck-boost converter with the inductor split to form a transformer. PROPOSED SYSTEM: This paper proposes a new output filter, named the trap-CL filter, to reduce the size for ac-module applications. The trap-CL filter consists of a trap filter with large impedance at the resonant frequency, and the CL filter. The trap filter of the proposed output filter is used to eliminate the harmonics at the switching frequency, which is dominant in the output current. Thereby, the required filter inductance can be reduced because the CL filter handles a smaller harmonics in the multiples of the switching frequency. The ac-module can be divided into three parts: the flyback converter, the unfolding bridge, and the output filter. The flyback converter, which has decoupling capacitor Cd, performs shaping the dc output current of the PV-panel into a rectified sinusoidal waveform in DCM operation, using the main switch QP, 1 and QP, 2. The unfolding bridge, which consists of thyristors (QS1 and QS3) and switches (QS2 and QS4), determine the direction of the output current for the grid phase synchronization. The output filter is used to attenuate the harmonics created by the DCM control. Nevertheless, the output current still contains harmonics in the EMI frequency range, because the flyback inverter tends to be operated at high switching frequency for improved efficiency. ADVANTAGES:• Reduce size and weight.• Inductance and the size of the filter can be reduced.APPLICATIONS:• AC-module applications.
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